Cummings and Worley remarked that OD is often confused with and mistakenly used to also mean change management. They are both concerned with the sequence of activities, the processes, and the leadership that produce organization improvements. They differ, however, in their underlying value orientation. Change management focuses more narrowly on values of cost, quality, and schedule.
A lone hunter is on his way home from a bad day at hunting. As he crosses the last ridge before home. Investigating, he discovers some wolf pups hiding in a shallow den.
The pups are all clearly frightened and huddle close together as he kneels in front of the den. The darkest colored pup shows no fear of the man's approach. Let me take a look at you, he says. After a mutual bout of petting by the man and licking by the wolf, the man suddenly has an idea.
Although we have tried to make light of this event, the fact is that no one knows exactly how or why this first encounter took place. The earliest archeological estimate indicates that it occurred in the late Glacial period, approximately 14, years BC Boessneck, Another scenario is that wolves domesticated themselves.
The presumption is that calm wolves with low levels of fear were likely to scavenge near human settlements. Both Coppinger and Smith and Zeuner suggest that wild species which later became domesticants started out as camp followers. Some wolves were believed to have scavenged near human settlements or followed hunting parties; wild cattle supposedly invaded grain fields, and wild cats may have invaded grainaries while hunting for mice.
However, the most recent evidence obtained by sequencing mitochondrial DNA of 67 dog breeds and wolves from 27 localities indicates that dogs may have diverged from wolves overyears ago Vita et al. In any event, wolves kept for companions had to be easy to handle and socialize to humans.
Within a few generations, early humans may have turned wolves into dogs by selecting and breeding the tamest ones. Thousands of years ago, humans were not aware that behavior in animals was heritable.
However, even today people who raise dogs, horses, pigs, cattle, or chickens notice differences in the behavior of the offspring. Some animals are friendly and readily approach people, while others may be shy and nervous.
The red fox Vulpes fulva has been raised on seminatural fur farms for over years and was selected for fur traits and not behavioral traits. However, they demonstrate three distinctly different characteristic responses to man.
The objective of this experiment was to breed animals similar in behavior to the domestic dog. By selecting and breeding the tamest individuals, 20 years later the experiment succeeded in turning wild foxes into tame, border collie-like fox-dogs.
The highly selected "tame" population of fox-dog foxes actively sought human contact and would whine and wag their tails when people approached Belyaev Organization development (OD) Although behavioral science has provided the basic foundation for the study and practice of OD, new and emerging fields of study have made their presence felt.
Concerned with social change and, more particularly, with effective, permanent social change, Lewin believed that the motivation to change was.
Organization development and change (ODC) is a term used to refer to organization development (OD) as it emerged in the s and s as a discrete area of inquiry. The term also refers to subsequent developments in planned organizational change and broader labels (such as change management) since.
The World Bank Group works in every major area of development. We provide a wide array of financial products and technical assistance, and we help countries share and apply innovative knowledge and solutions to the challenges they face.
EurekAlert! is an online science news service featuring health, medicine, science and technology news from leading research institutions and universities. Sponsored by AAAS, the science society. This course provides a basic introduction to the nature of human growth and development from conception through adolescence.
Students are provided the opportunity to explore the physical, psychosocial, and cognitive factors of growth and development from both a theoretical and a .
|Behavioral modernity - Wikipedia||The objectives of OD are:|
Board of Directors. Journal of Behavioral Profiling. Annual Meeting. Criminal Profiling Professional Certification Act of