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The two agreed that it would be necessary to invite the Soviets as the other major allied power. Marshall's speech had explicitly included an invitation to the Soviets, feeling that excluding them would have been a sign of distrust. State Department officials, however, knew that Stalin would almost certainly not participate and that any plan that would send large amounts of aid to the Soviets was unlikely to get Congressional approval.
The Soviet Union was invited with the understanding that it would likely refuse. The states of the future Eastern Bloc were also approached, and Czechoslovakia and Poland agreed to attend. In one of the clearest signs and reflections of tight Soviet control and domination over the region, Jan Masarykthe foreign minister of Czechoslovakia, was summoned to Moscow and berated by Stalin for considering Czechoslovakia's possible involvement with and joining of the Marshall Plan.
The other Eastern Bloc states immediately rejected the offer. The Soviet Union's "alternative" to the Marshall plan, which was purported to involve Soviet subsidies and trade with western Europe, became known as the Molotov Planand later, the Comecon.
He accused the United States of attempting to impose its will on other independent states, while at the same time using economic resources distributed as relief to needy nations as an instrument of political pressure.
However, in Tito broke decisively with Stalin on other issues, making Yugoslavia an independent communist state. Yugoslavia requested American aid. American leaders were internally divided, but finally agreed and began sending money on a small scale inand on a much larger scale in The American aid was not part of the Marshall Plan.
The member conservative isolationist Senate wing of the party, based in the rural Midwest and led by Senator Kenneth S. Wherry R-Nebraskawas outmaneuvered by the emerging internationalist wing, led by Senator Arthur H.
The opposition argued that it would be "a wasteful 'operation rat-hole'"; that it made no sense to oppose communism by supporting the socialist governments in Western Europe; and that American goods would reach Russia and increase its war potential. R-Massachusetts admitted there was no certainty that the plan would succeed, but said it would halt economic chaos, sustain Western civilization, and stop further Soviet expansion.
Taft R-Ohio hedged on the issue. He said it was without economic justification; however, it was "absolutely necessary" in "the world battle against communism.
Truman's own prestige and power had been greatly enhanced by his stunning victory in the election. Across America, multiple interest groups, including business, labor, farming, philanthropy, ethnic groups, and religious groups, saw the Marshall Plan as an inexpensive solution to a massive problem, noting it would also help American exports and stimulate the American economy as well.
Major newspapers were highly supportive, including such conservative outlets as Time magazine. Vandenberg made sure of bipartisan support on the Senate Foreign Relations Committee.
The Solid Democratic South was highly supportive, the upper Midwest was dubious, but heavily outnumbered. The plan was opposed by conservatives in the rural Midwest, who opposed any major government spending program and were highly suspicious of Europeans.
Wallacethe former Vice President. He said the Plan was hostile to the Soviet Union, a subsidy for American exporters, and sure to polarize the world between East and West. The appointment of the prominent businessman Paul G.
Hoffman as director reassured conservative businessmen that the gigantic sums of money would be handled efficiently. Sixteen nations met in Paris to determine what form the American aid would take, and how it would be divided.
The negotiations were long and complex, with each nation having its own interests. France's major concern was that Germany not be rebuilt to its previous threatening power. The Benelux countries Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxemburgdespite also suffering under the Nazis, had long been closely linked to the German economy and felt their prosperity depended on its revival.
The Scandinavian nations, especially Swedeninsisted that their long-standing trading relationships with the Eastern Bloc nations not be disrupted and that their neutrality not be infringed. The Americans were pushing the importance of free trade and European unity to form a bulwark against communism.
The Truman administration, represented by William L. Claytonpromised the Europeans that they would be free to structure the plan themselves, but the administration also reminded the Europeans that implementation depended on the plan's passage through Congress.
A majority of Congress members were committed to free trade and European integration, and were hesitant to spend too much of the money on Germany. Attempting to contain spreading Soviet influence in Eastern Bloc, Truman asked Congress to restore a peacetime military draft and to swiftly pass the Economic Cooperation Act, the name given to the Marshall Plan.Oct 03, · A Standard Business Plan Outline [Updated for ] by: For example, although the executive summary comes as the first business plan section, I recommend writing it after everything else is done, so you know exactly what appears in the rest of your business plan/5().
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Free online resources for work and life from leslutinsduphoenix.com Business Plan January Note that the title and date should be featured less prominently than your company name. 4. Less is More The executive summary will summarize the contents of the business plan. There is no need for the cover to do so, as well.
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It is intended as an aid to decision-making by managers and has been described as the most important part of a business plan. An executive. The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was an American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave over $12 billion (nearly $ billion in US dollars) in economic assistance to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War leslutinsduphoenix.com plan was in operation for four years beginning on April 3,