We now outline each factor and the main evidence for each. Engaging work The job characteristics model claims that job satisfaction is largely determined by how engaging the job itself is. The model breaks engagingness into five main variables:
Meyer and Allen created this model for two reasons: Meyer and Allen's research indicated that there are three "mind sets" which can characterize an employee's commitment to the organization. Mercurio extended this model by reviewing the empirical and theoretical studies on organizational commitment.
Mercurio posits that emotional, or affective commitment is the core essence of organizational commitment. Meyer and Allen pegged AC as the "desire" component of organizational commitment. An employee who is affectively committed strongly identifies with the goals of the organization and desires to remain a part of the organization.
This commitment can be influenced by many different demographic characteristics: The problem with these characteristics is that while they can be seen, they cannot be clearly defined.
Meyer and Allen gave this example that "positive relationships between tenure and commitment maybe due to tenure-related differences in job status and quality"  In developing this concept, Meyer and Allen drew largely on Mowday, Porter, and Steers's  concept of commitment, which in turn drew on earlier work by Kanter Becker's "side bet theory"  Things like economic costs such as pension accruals and social costs friendship ties with co-workers would be costs of losing organizational membership.
But an individual doesn't see the positive costs as enough to stay with an organization they must also take into account the availability of alternatives such as another organizationdisrupt personal relationships, and other "side bets" that would be incurred from leaving their organization.
The problem with this is that these "side bets" don't occur at once but that they "accumulate with age and tenure". These feelings may derive from a strain on an individual before and after joining an organization. For example, the organization may have invested resources in training an employee who then feels a 'moral' obligation to put forth effort on the job and stay with the organization to 'repay the debt.
But generally if an individual invest a great deal they will receive "advanced rewards". Normative commitment is higher in organizations that value loyalty and systematically communicate the fact to employees with rewards, incentives and other strategies. Normative commitment in employees is also high where employees regularly see visible examples of the employer being committed to employee well-being.
An employee with greater organizational commitment has a greater chance of contributing to organizational success and will also experience higher levels of job satisfaction. High levels of job satisfaction, in turn, reduces employee turnover and increases the organization's ability to recruit and retain talent.
Meyer and Allen based their research in this area more on theoretical evidence rather than empirical, which may explain the lack of depth in this section of their study compared to the others. They drew off Wiener's  research for this commitment component.
Critique to the three-component model[ edit ] Since the model was made, there has been conceptual critique to what the model is trying to achieve. However, a collection of studies have shown that the model is not consistent with empirical findings. They have come to the conclusion that TCM is a model for predicting turnover.
Job Satisfaction in Organizational Psychology Job satisfaction can be known to some people as an important element in their lives. If an individual is unhappy with their occupation it may affect other parts of their life. Since early studies in the s, job satisfaction has become one of the most widely investigated concepts in the field of industrial/organizational psychology. It is a valuable outcome in its own right but also a driver of other important individual and organizational . It is also important to be aware on how job satisfaction impacts on worker health and productivity, which is explored further in the Job satisfaction: evidence for impact on reducing psychosocial risks article.
In a sense the model describes why people should stay with the organization whether it is because they want to, need to, or ought to.To survey the literature, we familiarised ourselves with the latest work on positive psychology by reading all of ‘Flourish’ and ‘Learned Optimism’ by Seligman, ‘Stumbling on Happiness’ by Gilbert, ‘Drive’ by Pink, and several review papers.
We also did a Google Scholar search for. Industrial and Organizational Psychology. This document is an abridged version of the approved CRSPPP (Committee on the Recognition of Specialties and Proficiencies in Professional Psychology) petition for the recognition of Industrial and Organizational Psychology as a specialty in professional psychology..
Industrial and Organizational Psychology is represented by the Society for Industrial. Entrepreneurship can be extremely fulfilling and rewarding. You are your own boss and have the satisfaction of seeing your business grow as your reputation spreads and you gain new customers.
Abstract. Background: A vast number of published studies have suggested a link between job satisfaction levels and health.
The sizes of the relationships reported vary widely. Narrative overviews of this relationship have been published, but no systematic meta-analysis review has been conducted. In an environment of tension and division of labor such as Healthcare Services, the performance of employees is one of the most basic challenges.
Get an insight into the UK's industries and find out about jobs, training, and key issues.