Classical Conditioning, part 3 Sometime around the time that Pavlov was doing his research on drooling dogs, John B.
Abstract Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent. Fear conditioning and extinction learning in animals often serve as simple models of fear acquisition and exposure therapy of anxiety disorders in humans.
This article reviews the empirical and theoretical literature on cognitive processes in fear acquisition, extinction, and exposure therapy. It is concluded that exposure therapy is a form of cognitive intervention that specifically changes the expectancy of harm.
Implications for therapy research are discussed. Cognitive processes, Fear acquisition, Extinction, Exposure therapy, Cognitive-behavioral therapy, Anxiety disorders, Amygdala, Prefrontal cortex, d-Cycloserine Anxiety disorders, such as social phobia, specific phobias, panic disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder are among the most common mental disorders in the population.
The most effective strategies for treating anxiety disorders include exposure therapy with or without cognitive strategies, and pharmacotherapy, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for a review, see Barlow, Exposure therapy is rooted in behaviorism and learning theories in psychology that began in the early s Watson, Especially influential was Mowrer who hypothesized that fears are acquired through repeated presentations of a neutral stimulus conditioned stimulus; CS and a pain-producing or fear-eliciting stimulus unconditioned stimulus; US.
He observed that the strength of the fear response in rats is determined by the number of repetitions of association between the CS and US, and the intensity of the unconditioned response.
Mowrer further noted that the repeated presentation of the CS in the absence of the US leads to extinction, the gradual decrease of the conditioned response. For example, Davis et al.
In this review, I will explore the processes of fear acquisition and extinction learning and will later discuss novel pharmaceutical approaches to enhance the extinction processes during exposure therapy. Animal research suggests that extinction is a form of acquired inhibition that suppresses a fear response.
In other words, extinction is probably not simply an unlearning or forgetting but rather a new form of learning that changes the CS-US contingency in such a way that the CS no longer signals an aversive event and thereby inhibits the expression of the fear response e.
Laboratory studies implicate the amygdala during fear extinction. It will be argued that extinction learning and exposure therapy are forms of cognitive intervention that specifically changes harm expectancy.
It should be noted that I will not present an exhaustive review of learning processes, but rather a focused, clinically relevant discussion of models that are derived from Pavlovian conditioning and their associations with cognitive theory and therapy. Cognitive processes in models of fear acquisition 1.
The simple conditioning model The idea that direct conditioning is primarily responsible for fear acquisition in humans was the dominant view for many decades.
For example, the study of Little Albert by Watson and Rayner has frequently been used as an example of fear conditioning in humans. In the experiment, Watson and Rayner first presented Little Albert, an month old orphan with several objects including a rat, a rabbit, a fur coat, and a dog.
Little Albert did not show any signs of fear or other negative emotional reactions towards these objects.The Little Albert experiment was a controlled experiment showing empirical evidence of classical conditioning in humans. The study also provides an example of stimulus leslutinsduphoenix.com was carried out by John B.
Watson and his graduate student, Rosalie Rayner, at Johns Hopkins leslutinsduphoenix.com results were first published in the February issue of the Journal of Experimental Psychology. Classical Conditioning, part 3. The story of Watson's research on conditioning of fear in humans is commonly referred to as "Little Albert and the White Rat." This story is summarized below.
extinction: in classical conditioning, the tendency for the response to the conditioned stimulus (called the conditioned response) to go away once. For example, the study of Little Albert by Watson and Rayner () has frequently been used as an example of fear conditioning in humans. In the experiment, Watson and Rayner () first presented Little Albert, an month old orphan with several objects including a rat, a rabbit, a fur coat, and a dog.
Little Albert was an11th month year old baby who worked at the same clinic as Watson, and was observed to be a very calm child, never crying or showing fear. The apparatus used in the experiment was a white laboratory rat, a hammer and a steel bar. Watson’s “Little Albert” experiment demonstrated which of the following pairs of classical conditioning processes?
A. acquisition and discrimination B. discrimination and extinction C. extinction and generalization D. generalization and acquisition. Psyc Chapter 5. STUDY. PLAY. Process the produces a relatively enduring change in behavior, or knowledge, as the result of past experience. Extinction occurs, when the Conditioned Stimulus is Repeatedly presented, Without, the Unconditioned Stimulus.
at the beginning of the Classical Conditioning Experiment, performed on Little Albert.