Sticks and stones may break your bones, but words can change your brain. According to Andrew Newberg, M. They propel the motivational centers of the brain into action, according to the authors, and build resiliency.
Bacteria as plant pathogens. The Plant Health Instructor. Vidaver and Patricia A. Plant associated bacteria may be beneficial or detrimental. All plant surfaces have microbes on them termed epiphytesand some microbes live inside plants termed endophytes.
Some are residents and some are transient. Bacteria are among the microbes that successively colonize plants as they mature.
Individual bacterial cells cannot be seen without the use of a microscope, however, large populations of bacteria become visible as aggregates in liquid, as biofilms on plants, as viscous suspensions plugging plant vessels, or colonies on petri dishes in the laboratory. Figure 1 Plant pathogenic bacteria cause many serious diseases of plants throughout the world Vidhyasekaran ; Figure 2but fewer than fungi or viruses, and they cause relatively less damage and economic cost Kennedy and Alcorn Most plants, both economic and wild, have innate immunity or resistance to many pathogens.
However, many plants can harbor plant pathogens without symptom development asymptomatic. Figure 2 return to top Frontiers: Current and Future Areas of Inquiry The most exciting and current areas of research on plant-associated bacteria are the result of new intellectual discoveries, analyses and fields of study, new techniques and new instrumentation unavailable even a decade ago.
For example, genomic sequencing, or the ordered reading of thousands of nucleotides constituting the deoxyribonucleic acid DNA of an organism, is now relatively common.
Along with sequencing and its enormous data accumulation has arisen the field of bioinformatics to enable communication among scientists and analyses of the data, particularly comparative and evolutionary studies.
Even supposedly simple steps like annotation of a gene, or its name or function, remains a challenge. For maximal usefulness, such as unequivocal identification of an organism and determination of the number of its virulence genes and their locations, a fully annotated genome sequence is needed Fraser et al.
Analyzing the expression of DNA through intermediate steps with microarrays is a powerful emerging tool Hinds et al. Similarly, methods for characterizing the entire protein complement of an organism proteomics are becoming available Graves and Hayward These new and evolving techniques are enabling the study of virulence the disease severity and pathogenicity the ability to cause diseasestrain descendants of a single isolation in culture identification and typing similarity or difference analysis relative to other strainsevolution and spread of bacteria, gene expression and gene regulation.
These discoveries are occurring both with natural bacterial variants and mutants constructed in the laboratory.
The expectation is to exploit these findings for improved disease management. Mechanisms of pathogenicity of bacterial plant pathogens are becoming well known Ahlemeyer and EichenlaubBurger and Eichenlaub Virulence and pathogenicity genes may be harbored in different replicons independent replicating unitssuch as spread throughout the chromosome s or in specialized areas termed genomic or pathogenicity islands Arnold et al.
Population development must normally occur for many bacteria to survive and infect plants. Infectious doses normally are in the millions of cells.
In several cases, and perhaps all, the cells communicate chemically with one another quorum sensing and with other species.
These chemical sensing molecules are under intensive study Federle and Bassler In some cases, and perhaps most, microorganisms organize in dense growths to form biofilms that tightly adhere to surfaces, serving as protectants against the elements and enabling cells to produce a favorable environment for survival and spread.
Some structures used by bacteria to insert chemical compounds into plant cells are well studied, such as the so-called Type III secretion system five types are currently known. The Type III system operates somewhat like a syringe and plunger to transport pathogen-produced proteins that effect disease or trigger defense Pociano et al.
These mechanisms have sometimes shown surprising and unexpected similarity to those found in animal and human pathogens Cao et al. There are even a few strains of bacteria that cross kingdoms: The genetic basis for such novelty is of immense interest and significance regarding the basis of infectious disease.What is another word for promote?
Need synonyms for promote? Here's a list of words from our thesaurus that you can use instead. that of which a thing consists; physical matter or material: form and substance. a species of matter of definite chemical composition: a chalky substance. controlled substance.
Important substances found in food, which promote growth and good health Get the answers you need, now!5/5(1). Antonyms for Growth substances. 3 words related to growth factor: protein, nerve growth factor, NGF.
What are synonyms for Growth substances? Write what you mean clearly and correctly. Cytokinins are a class of plant growth substances active in promoting cell division.
Relevance ranks synonyms and suggests the best matches based on how closely a synonym’s sense matches the sense you selected. Synonyms for growth-enhancing This thesaurus page is about all possible synonyms, equivalent, same meaning and similar words for the term growth-enhancing. PPDB, the paraphrase database ( / 0 votes) Rate these synonyms.